Nutrition and best way not burn out / Nutrição e forma de não queimar musculos

Gain the carbs and proteins that we spend on working out.

GLYCEMIC INDEX of CARBOHYDRATES for EXERCISE

For many years, carbohydrates were labeled as simple (containing sugars like glucose and sucrose) or complex (containing fiber and starch) based on the structure of the main carbohydrate. Simple carbohydrate (fruit juice and high-sugar foods and beverages) caused blood glucose levels to rapidly rise and then drop precipitously, which is known as rebound hypoglycemia (low sugar). Simple carbohydrates have also been considered to be lacking in nutrient value. Complex carbohydrates (breads, cereals, vegetables and foods high in starch) are digested slowly and caused little change in blood glucose levels or produce a flatter and more sustained blood glucose and insulin response. Complex carbohydrate foods have also been regarded as being more “healthy” or “nutritious”.

While this classification system of simple and complex carbohydrate may have been developed as a quick education tool for the lay person, it is more complex than that, as some complex carbohydrates can be digested, absorbed and utilized as quickly as simple sugars, meaning that they have similar glycemic responses. [The glycemic response of a food is a measure of the food’s ability to raise blood glucose (blood sugar)].

Because of this new understanding, there is confusion about which carbohydrates should be eaten to achieve the maximum performance benefit or in planning the athlete’s training meals. To clarify the issue, the scientific terms glycemic index (GI) has now become a common lingo.

The glycemic index provides a way to rank carbohydrate-rich foods according to the blood glucose response following their intake. The GI is calculated by measuring the incremental area under the blood glucose curve following ingestion of a test food, which is either glucose or white bread, providing 50 g of carbohydrate, compared with the area under the blood glucose curve following ingestion of 50g of a particular food or a combination of foods. In other words, it is comparing the blood glucose response within a two-hour time period following ingestion of 50 g of a particular food and then comparing this number to that of white bread, which has an arbitrarily defined as having a GI of 100, and is used as the standard for all comparisons. (50 grams of glucose can also be used as a standard). These tests are conducted after an overnight fast.

The GI gives a numeric value for the glycemic response produced by a food, so that foods can easily be compared. Carbohydrate foods can now be classified as producing either a high (70 or more), moderate (56 – 69) or low (55 and less) glycemic response. Foods that produce a high-glycemic response are expected to produce a greater increase in muscle glycogen when compared to foods producing a low-glycemic response due to the rapid increase in blood glucose levels. Bread, potatoes, breakfast cereal, sports drinks are classified as high GI foods. Moderate GI foods are, oats, bananas, mangos and soft drinks and low GI foods are milk, yogurt, lentils, legumes, pasta, cold climate fruits such as apples and oranges.

Numeric value for the glycemic response produced by a food, that are classified as producing either a high (70 or more), moderate (56 – 69) or low (55 and less) glycemic response.

COMPLEX CHO

GI

 

SIMPLE CHO

GI

  • Bananas/mangos

Moderate

 
  • Sugar

Moderate

  • Apples/Oranges

Low

 
  • Honey, Jam

Moderate

  • Papaya/pineapple

Moderate

 
  • Syrups

High

  • Watermelon

High

 
  • Glucose

High

  • Fruit juices

Low

 
  • Soft drinks, Cordial

Moderate

  • Canned fruit

High

 
  • Sports drinks

High

  • Dried fruit

Moderate

 
  • Sweets

High

  • Milk, yoghurt

Low

 
  • High-fat cakes

Moderate

  • Liquid meal (Sustagen)

High

 
  • Pastry

Moderate

  • Breads

High

 
  • French fries/chips

High

  • Breakfast cereals

High

 
  • Crisps

Moderate

  • Pasta & noodles

Low

 
  • High-fat cakes/muffins

Low

  • Rice & other grains

Moderate

 
  • Tomato soup

Low

  • Potatoes, baked

High

 
  • Glucose

High

  • Low-fat cakes

Low

 
  • Lentils

Low

 
  • Dry biscuits & rice cakes

High

 
  • Pizza Hut, supreme

Low

 
  • Spaghetti, protein rich sauce

Low

 
  • Oats

Moderate

 

Examples of complex and simple carbohydrates, which have either have high, moderate or low glycemic index.

High glycemic food

Athletes can now use the GI of various foods or their training diet to optimise muscle glycogen.  To increase muscle glycogen, especially after intense exercise, it may be more practical to for the athlete to take 50-100g (200-400 kcal) of high GI carbohydrate immediately after glycogen-depleting exercise or eat high-carbohydrate foods that are packed with vitamins and fiber, especially whole grains, fruits and vegetables. High GI foods and high-carbohydrate sport nutrition products can also help improve glycogen replacement and are especially helpful during times of intense training or competition.

 Low glycemic food

On the other hand, consuming moderate and low GI foods may also play a role in sport or endurance exercise, because these foods slowly allow glucose to enter the bloodstream and help prevent the fall in blood glucose

 High to moderate glycemic vegetables and fruits

Athletes who want to minimize changes in blood glucose should select more medium to low GI types of foods (beans, legumes, whole grains, fruits or vegetables). Moderate and low GI foods are good choices for mealtime when rapid carbohydrate replacement is not a critical issue. Athletes who are doing endurance exercise may want to consume a moderate to low GI meal before exercise to promote sustained carbohydrate availability during exercise.

Nutrition for the Endurance Athlete
The Marathoner’s Diet for Optimal Performance
by Allegra Burton, RD, MPH

You’ve run hundreds of miles and, in the process, burned countless calories training for a marathon. Our bodies are like cars that cannot run on empty and which will perform at their best when properly fueled. So how will you fuel your body so that you can ask it to run and run well? Read on…

Foods are made up of carbohydrates, protein, and fat. Marathon runners and athletes in general should eat a diet high in carbohydrates, moderate in protein, and low in fat. Another key nutrient that is a must for athletes is water. You should know why these nutrients are important, as well as how much of them you should eat and how much water you need to drink before, during and after exercise. If you follow these guidelines you can be sure that your body will be adequately and properly fueled, hydrated and ready to perform at its best!

Carbohydrates and muscle glycogen

Why are carbohydrates important?
The body’s preferred fuel for running (or any endurance sport) is muscle glycogen. Glycogen is the body’s storage form of carbohydrate. If muscle glycogen breakdown exceeds its replacement, glycogen stores become depleted. The result is fatigue and inability to maintain training and racing intensity. In order to replenish and maintain glycogen stores, the marathoner’s diet needs to be carbohydrate-rich.

How much carbohydrate should I eat?
Carbohydrates should provide 60-70% of total calories. To figure out the amount that’s right for you, multiply your weight in kilograms by 7, or multiply your weight in pounds by 3.2 – to give you the number of grams of carbohydrates you should consume per day.

The best sources of carbohydrate are grain products (preferably whole grains) such as bread, rice, cereal and pasta, as well as fruits, vegetables and lowfat dairy foods. Food labels tell you how many grams of total carbohydrate are in a serving of that food. Each day, the endurance athlete should try to eat at least 15 servings of grain products, at least 6 servings of fruits and 6 servings of vegetables, and at least 5 servings of lowfat dairy foods.
In general,

  • a serving of a grain product, such as a slice of bread or 1/2 cup cooked rice or pasta, and a serving of fruit, such as a piece of fruit or 3/4 cup fruit juice, each provides 15 grams carbohydrate
  • a serving of dairy, such as 1 cup of lowfat milk or yogurt or 1.5 ounces of cheese provides 12 grams carbohydrate
  • a serving of vegetables, such as 1 cup of leafy raw vegetables, 1/2 cup chopped vegetables, or 3/4 cup vegetable juice provides 5 grams carbohydrate.

NOTE: starchy vegetables such as peas and corn, as well as dried beans such as lentils or garbanzo beans provide greater amounts of carbohydrates, about 15-20 grams per 1/2 cup serving.

Protein

Why is protein important?
Protein is needed for muscle growth and repair. Regular physical training tends to reduce muscle protein breakdown and protein loss from the body. While some protein breakdown may occur during exercise, protein build-up is enhanced during the recovery and the effectiveness of protein synthesis is increased. When muscle glycogen stores are high, protein contributes no more than 5% of the energy needed. However, when muscle glycogen stores are low, due to inadequate calorie and carbohydrate intake, protein is used for energy rather than for muscle growth and repair and may contribute as much as 10% of the energy needed for exercise. Such use of protein for fuel is expensive and inefficient.

How much protein do I need to eat?
Endurance athletes need up to 50% more protein than sedentary adults. Protein should contribute 12-15% of total calories per day. To figure out the amount for you, multiply your weight in kilograms by 1.3, or multiply your weight in pounds by 0.6 to calculate the number of grams of protein you should consume per day.

Good sources of protein include lean meat, poultry, fish, eggs and dairy products which contain all of the essential amino acids and thus are complete proteins. Other good protein sources are tofu, nuts and dried beans. As with carbohydrates, food labels tell you how many grams of protein are in a serving. An endurance athlete should consume 3-5 servings per day. One serving of lean meat, fish or poultry is 3 ounces, roughly the size of a deck of playing cards.

In general,

  • a 3 ounce serving of lean meat, poultry or fish, e.g. 1 medium pork chop, 1 small hamburger, 1/2 of a whole chicken breast, or a small fish fillet provides 21 grams of protein
  • a 1/2 cup of cooked beans, 1 ounce of cheese, 1 egg, 2 egg whites, 4 ounces of tofu or 2 tablespoons of peanut butter each provides 7 grams of protein
  • one cup of lowfat milk or yogurt provides 8 grams of protein
  • one serving of grain products (preferably whole grain) such as a slice of whole wheat bread provides 3 grams of protein

What are the consequences of eating a high protein diet?
When an athlete eats more protein than he needs, he either burns it for energy, or stores it as fat. Carbohydrates are a more efficient and less expensive source of energy. In addition, consuming too much protein increases the body’s water requirement and may contribute to dehydration, because the kidneys require more water to eliminate the excess nitrogen load of a high protein intake. Also, a high protein, high fat diet after heavy training will cause incomplete replacement of muscle glycogen and impair performance. Such a diet is hard to digest and may lead to feeling sluggish. A high carbohydrate diet, on the other hand, is easy to digest and quickly restores muscle glycogen.

Fat

Exercise does not completely eliminate the health dangers associated with eating a high-fat diet, such as increased risk of heart disease, stroke and certain cancers.

How much fat can I eat?
Endurance athletes as well as all people should consume less than 30% of total calories from fat and less than 10% from saturated fat. If, as an athlete, you eat 3000 calories per day, less than 1000 of those calories should be from fat.

High-fat foods include chocolate, fried foods, ice cream, bacon, hot dogs, and cookies. Food labels tell you grams of fat and percentage of calories from fat per serving. Choose foods with less than 30% of calories from fat.

Will a high-fat diet impair my performance as an athlete?
Muscle glycogen is preferred over fat for fuel for high intensity exercise of long duration because fat breakdown cannot supply energy fast enough. In addition, fat takes longer to digest than carbohydrates and thus should be limited in pre-exercise meals.

http://www.marathonguide.com/training/articles/nutrition.cfm

When I started to think about eating right I did what I usually do and headed to the Internet to learn what I could.  It didn’t take long before I was lost and confused.  Over at BeginnerTriathlete.com I found some good advice and an article called The No-Brainer Diet.  Following the simple rules they laid out…

  • Eat three large meals (5-600 calories) with two or three snacks (2-300 calories) mixed in
  • Eat proteins and carbohydrates with every meal
  • Grill, broil or steam foods
  • Drink 8-10 glasses of non-caffeinated beverages
  • Do not eat after 8PM
  • Cheat once a week

…I was able to finally follow a set of guidelines and apply that to my eating.  They also provided a great chart sorting through the good and the bad and breaking it down so anyone could follow this diet!  This is just a sample but I think you get the drift.

 

Carbs

Proteins

Fats

Eat a lot…

Whole wheat bread/pasta, beans, potatoes, green vegetables, cereals, brown rice etc…

Boneless skinless white meat chicken or turkey, eggs, skim milk, lean cuts of beef, low fat cheese, etc…

Raw almonds, walnuts, olive oil, coconut oil

Eat a little…

White bread, white rice, corn, starches

Pork, dark meat chicken or turkey, ground beef

Vegetable oil, margarine, roasted nuts

Eat none…

Cookies, cake, chips, anything deep fried

Bacon, deep fried anything, hot dogs and other mystery meats

Butter, animal fats, shortening

So far this has been what has gotten me down below the 190lb mark.  I had been stuck at this point for two months but since changing my diet was able to drop down to 180lbs and counting while still being able to go out once a week and have some desert!

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